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Bayat e Esfahan (Persian:بیات اصفهان) is one of pieces of Iranian traditional music which known as a branch of Dastgah-e Shur or Dastgah e Homayun. of course some musical theorists said that Bayat e Esfahan is an independent Dastgah.
Bayat e Esfahan has some Branche (Gusha) including:
- Daramad e avvval (first preface)
- Daramad e dovvom (second preface)
- Jame daran
- Bayat e Raje
- Oshagh (owj)
- Bayat e Shiraz
- Suz va Godaz
- Sufi name or Saki name
BAYĀT-e EṢFAHĀN, or ĀVĀZ-e EṢFAHĀN, a musical system based on a specific collection of modal pieces (gūšahā) which are performed in a particular order. According to the late 13th/19th-century author Forṣat Šīrāzī (apud Ṣafwat, p. 81), Eṣfahān was listed as one of the pieces of the modal system (dastgāh) of Homāyūn. In the twentieth century it has developed from a gūša of Homāyūn into a nearly independent dastgāh. Its smaller repertoire and cadential references to Homāyūn support the theory that it is a sub-dastgāh (āvāz, naḡma) of Homāyūn. Some theorists (Farhat, p, 164; Caron and Safvate, p. 89) believe it to be an independent dastgāh; others believe it to be derived from the dastgāh Šūr (During, p. 118).
The introductory part (darāmad) is in the mode of Eṣfahān. The scale degrees are F G Ap B C D Eb. The recitation tone (šāhed) is on C, the initial pitch (āḡāz) may be on C or G, the cadential pitch (īst) may be C or Ap, and the final pitch is on G, although earlier in the century it concluded on F.
Like other dastgāhs, Eṣfahān’s scale and modal configuration have changed over time. The mood of Eṣfahān has been described as mystical and profound, expressing a mixture of happiness and melancholy. Its current similarity to the Western minor scale has made it a much-used mode in popular and semiclassical music, where Western minor tuning is used and the Ap eliminated (Zonis, p. 87).
The important gūšas of Bayāt-e Eṣfahān are the Darāmad, Jāmadarān, Bayāt-e Rājeʿ, ʿOššāq, Šāhḵatāʾī, Sūz-o-godāz, and Maṯnawī. Bayāt-e Rājeʿ is one of the most important gūšas, and has a slightly different modal character than the Darāmad. ʿOššāq, also very important, represents a distinct modulation. Šāhḵatāʾī, which is modally close to ʿOššāq, expresses the high pitch area (awj) of the dastgāh, cadencing to Eṣfahān at its conclusion. Both Sūz-o-godāz and Maṯnawī have modal configurations similar to Eṣfahān.
N. Caron and D. Safvate, Iran: Les traditions musicales, Berlin, 1966, pp. 88-91.
J. During, La musique iranienne: Tradition et évolution, Paris, 1984, pp. 118-19.
H. Farhat, The Dastgah Concept in Persian Music, Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 1965, I, pp. 164-75; II, pp. 355-58.
M. Forsat Šīrāzī, Boḥūr al-alḥān, ed. ʿA. Zarrīnqalam, Tehran, 1345 Š./1966.
M. Karīmī (coll.), Radīf-e āvāzī-e mūsīqī-e sonnatī-e Īrān, transcribed and analyzed by M.-T. Masʿūdīya (Massoudieh), Tehran, 1357 Š./1978, pp. 83-97.
R. Ḵāleqī, Naẓar-ī be-mūsīqī II, Tehran, 1352 Š./1973, pp. 207-14.
K. Khatschi, Der Dastgah: Studien zur neuen persischen Musik, Regensburg, 1962, pp. 102-03.
M. Maʿrūfī, Radīf-e haft dastgāh-e mūsīqī-e īrānī, Tehran, 1352 Š./1973 (s.v. Bayāt-e Eṣfahān).
M. Sadeghi, Improvisation in Nonrhythmic Solo Instrumental Contemporary Persian Art Music, M.A. thesis, California State University, Los Angeles, 1971, pp. 35, 60, 62-63.
D. Ṣafwat, Ostādān-e mūsīqī-e Īrān wa alḥān-e mūsīqī-e īrānī, Tehran, 1350 Š./1971, pp. 74-99.
E. Zonis, Classical Persian Music: An Introduction, Cambridge, Mass., 1973, pp. 86-88.
|بیات اصفهان||bayat e isfahan||bayat e isfahaan|
Originally Published: December 15, 1988
Last Updated: December 15, 1988
This article is available in print.
Vol. III, Fasc. 8, pp. 884-885
Vol. III, Fasc. 8, pp. 884-885
Dastgāh-e Māhur or Dastgaah-e Maahur (Persian: دستگاه ماهور) is one of the seven Dastgāhs of Persian Music (Classically, Persian Music is organized into seven Dastgāhs and five Āvāzes, however from a merely technical point of view, one can consider them as an ensemble of 12 Dastgāhs).
The intervallic structure of the mode of Māhur partly parallels that of the major mode in western classic music. Yet, because of the other elements which go into the making of Persian modes, probably no melody in the major mode can be said to be in the mode of Māhur. A far closer analogue from an intervallic standpoint is the Obikhod scale (widespread in Russian medieval Znamenny chant and folk song) and the Jewish Adonai malakh mode. The modal structure of Māhur is shown below for Māhur C :
The characteristics of this mode are:
- The range is unusually wide, a minor 10th.
- The finalis has a central position; it is the linking tone of two conjunct major tetrachords. It is also the usual Āqāz.
- The 7th above the finalis is a semi-tone flatter than its lower octave, the 2nd below.
- Leaps of thirds both ascending and descending are common.
- Ascending leaps of perfect fourths are occasionally used. A leap of perfect fifth from the finalis to the 5th above is rarely used. The use of such leaps makes Māhurcapable of greater excitement than most other Persian modes. But, the melodic movement is still predominantly step-wise.
In Dastgāh-e Māhur, because of its many diverse Gušes, the role of the Forud is very significant in binding the whole repertoire together. In the Forud, the 3rd and the 2nd below receive emphasis, and usually the finalis is approached from below. The following score is a typical Forud of Māhur, transcribed here in Māhur C :
The finalis may be approached from above. This type, as shown in the next score, is less typical and gives no emphasis to the tetrachord below the finalis:
A third type of Forud, given in the following score emphasis the four notes above and below the finalis:
An authentic style of performance in Dastgāh-e Māhur customarily begins with an improvisation under the name of Moqaddame (meaning introduction in Persian) before the Darāmads. This Moqaddame is sometimes followed by a group of metric pieces, which are of recent origins and not of sufficient interest or authenticity to be considered here. The Moqaddame itself is nearly always included in a performance. It is a stately but unornate declamation which sets the tone for the Dastgāh, even though its characteristics are not maintained throughout. The Moqaddame places more emphasis on the tetrachord below the finalis; its basic melodic pattern is given here in Māhur C :
After the Moqaddame, the Darāmad section begins. Here, certain modifications in the mode of Māhur are effected. These modifications are:
- The tetrachord above the finalis receives more emphasis than the tetrachord below it, except in the Forud.
- The 2nd above the finalis (d in our scale) becomes the Šāhed.
- The 4th above may function as the Āqāz in place of the finalis.
- The melodic movement is overwhelmingly diatonic. Rare leaps of thirds are used; larger leaps are avoided, unless between phrases.
The basic formula for a Darāmad in Māhur C is given in the following score:
Dāstgah-e Māhur is rich in the number and variety of its Gušes, many of which modulate to modes very remote from the mode of Māhur itself. The major Gušes are Dād, Xosrovāni, Tusi, Azarbāyejāni, Feyli, Abol, Delkaš, Neyriz, Šekaste, Nahib, Arāq, Āšur, Rāk, Rāk-e Kašmir, and Rāk-e Hendi.
- Hormoz Farhat, The Dastgāh Concept in Persian Music (Cambridge University Press, 1990). ISBN 0-521-30542-X, ISBN 0-521-54206-5 (first paperback edition, 2004).
Dastgāh-e Šur (Persian: دستگاه شور) is one of the seven Dastgāhs of Persian Music (Classically, Persian Music is organized into seven Dastgāhs and five Āvāzes, however from a merely technical point of view, one can consider them as an ensemble of 12 Dastgāhs).
Šur is in some respects the most important of the Dastgāhs. It contains a large body of pieces, and in its domain belong four important Āvāzes: Dašti, Abuatā, Bayāt-e Tork and Afšāri. A great many folk tunes, from different parts of Persia, are founded on the modal schemes of Šur or its derivative Dastgāhs and Gušes. The melodic formation in Šur is conceived within the modal structure shown below for Šur D :
The characteristics of this mode are:
- The tetrachord above the finalis is the focal point of melodic activity.
- The finalis is the most emphasized tone.
- The 4th above is the minimal high point in the mode, and has considerable prominence.
- The 2nd and particularly the 3rd above the finalis are also heard frequently.
- The 5th above is a Moteqayyer (meaning variable in Persian). When the melodic line is descending, it is usually lowered by a micro tone from a to a . This lowering is responsible for the creation of a sense of finalis for the 4th above, since by lowering the a♮ to a , the original tetrachord is recreated from g.
- The 6th above has no significant role except as a note of resolution for the 5th when used ascendingly (a♮). The 7th above can be, and frequently is, entirely omitted.
- The 2nd below has considerable importance both as a frequent note of Āqāz (meaning beginning in Persian) and in cadences, where one of the most common cadential patterns involves a progression from the 2nd below to the finalis.
- The 3rd below is also used frequently in cadences. In such situations it is used ascendingly, resolving to the 2nd below and then to the finalis. Here, the 3rd below is higher than its octave (6th above) by a micro tone, b instead of b♭.
In every Dastgāh the Forud assumes a very significant role as a unifying agent which binds together the various Gušes in that Dastgāh. In most Dastgāhs, more than one Forud pattern is used. In a Šur Forud, the finalis may be approached by way of a) the 2nd below, b) the 3rd and 2nd below, c) the 2nd above, or d) the 4th above. What precedes these approaches can be brief or extensive depending on the extent of Forud improvisation. The following scores, give an average length for each of these Forud types in Šur D:
The melodic movement of Šur, as of all Dastgāhs and Gušes, is overwhelmingly diatonic. No leaps larger than a perfect 4th are made. Most leaps of 4ths actually occur between the end of one phrase and the beginning of another. In other situations, an upward leap of a 4th is relatively common, from the 2nd below to the 3rd above the finalis, at the beginning of a phrase. An upward and then downward leap of a 4th is common in the Forud d as shown above. This type of ending is also used in a number of other Dastgāhs (e.g. Homāyun and Navā). The very final portion of this Forud, which involves the leap of a 4th down, is known as Bāl-e Kabutar (meaning pigeon's wing in Persian) (see the score below).
Leaps of 3rds between the notes of the main tetrachord are used sparingly, generally in sequential and ornamental passages, as shown in the following score in Šur D :
To illustrate the melodic character of Šur, as represented by the Darāmad, two different formulae for Darāmads of Šur are transcribed in the following scores in Šur D :
These formulae, as the basis for improvisation, have been arrived at after analysis of numerous improvisations in Dastgāh-e Šur. After the Darāmad section, those Gušes which are part of the organisation of Dastgāh-e Šur are performed. A complete Radif, such as that of Musā Ma'rufi contains much redundancy and several short and insignificant pieces. The present study has been concerned with larger and more singular pieces, most of which would be included in a normal but extended performance of Šur.
The main Gušes of Dastgāh-e Šur are the following: Salmak, Mollā Nāzi, Golriz, Bozorg, Xārā, Qajar, Ozzāl, Šahnāz, Qarače, Hoseyni, Bayāt-e Kord and Gereyli. They may be performed in that order, but the order is by no means fixed. In a given performance of Dastgāh-e Šur some of the Gušes may be left out altogether, and the order of those included may also vary. This observation will hold true in all of the Dastgāhs. The order in which the Gušes are listed and described represents, at best, the most common arrangement of the most noteworthy pieces in each Dastgāh.
- Darāmad-eZang-e Šotor
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