Monday, 15 October 2018


Someone special left us yesterday!
Someone who changed a lot the life of women somewhere in this world which is called Hamedan. Your mother, my aunt, the one who pushed us toward education, to think and get out of the routines of ignorance! You my dear aunt, Maliheh Ghaffari, one of the two major women of my life who were the most important and inspiring for me and for sure for many many other girls and women who became the mothers of many many boys, men, brothers, fathers, husbands...! Maliheh Ghaffari , one of the most independant, the rarest self-made women of Hamedan/ Iran who decided to say NON to sitation of iranian women and reached university degree on philosophy in Tehran while being a mother of two kids in Hamedan! Was it hard 70 years ago to do so, definitly, it was but her determination was stronger than anything else and the parents (our dear grand-parents) quite avant-gardist! Maliheh Ghaffari, became the director of Parvin Etesami High School with the largest number of students and offered later the evening classes for the illitrate women ...I was not only one of the students of this high school but also being her niece, I had a bigger responsibility as her expectations were from me to be a role-model for all the students! I never remembered her voice being loud or shouting on any one as obviousely her authority was in her firm attitude in regards to the education of the future women whom had been trusted to her...! So, her firm look and voice, could hide a natural hidden kindness which could be more felt in her actions prorising the justice! The most even sound of her walk in the corridors of Parvin Etesami High-school announced her arrival and all students kept silence by respect knowing she was coming! Today, after many years of trying to deal with situations to be able to find a balance between my heart and my reason, I understand how hard it had been to be Maliheh Ghaffari with the conviction for being a woman of reasonfor justive! Some tears of sorrow cannot avoid to run from my heart for not being able to see her in this world! I understand and entirly respect her sens of responsibility! One special day, something happened between us that I taught me and I learned that Reason had to have priority on emotions when/once you live in a society that EDUCTION is the most important priority for women as it is air and water to them! I decided from that day to concentrate more on my studings than on my artistic activities as this priority was engraved on the doors of my heart ,' Shahrzad, besides of your responsibility toward yourself, you are responsible to be a role-model to those who will follow you and education is the master key to the freedom of all future women of this country!' No choice left to me, I asked my heart to be patient and use my creativity to flow in the rivers of life and reach to its oceans to be able to be inspiring to the ones who did not have this choice! My dear aunt, despite of your requirements in discipline, I had been always able to feel the endless kindness of your heart! You treasured your mission while trusting your intuition...passing it on to those future women who had the chance to witness understanding and wisdom...! All your family, friends, all those who had the chance to know you, honor your life in time and espace you lived in and will share the seeds of wisdom that you spread to the next ones in the gardens of eternity! With many thanks to you my dear aunt, Mahiheh Ghaffari for being so close to me, to us and being the special ONE you made of yourself to make a big change for many many women! We love you very deepely and will always treasure your gifts in us! Join to the dear ones who had been eager to welcome you, join the eternity and let your beautiful emotions be freely expressed through free laughters...!

Wednesday, 26 September 2018

Bayat e Esfahan (Persian:بیات اصفهان) is one of pieces of Iranian traditional music which known as a branch of Dastgah-e Shur or Dastgah e Homayun. of course some musical theorists said that Bayat e Esfahan is an independent Dastgah.[1]

sensual features[edit]

Ruhollah Khaleqi told noted about this mode as Sometimes happy sometimes sad.[2]


Bayat e Esfahan has some Branche (Gusha) including:
  • Daramad e avvval (first preface)
  • Daramad e dovvom (second preface)
  • Jame daran
  • Bayat e Raje
  • Oshagh (owj)
  • Bayat e Shiraz
  • Suz va Godaz
  • Naghme
  • Masnavi
  • Sufi name or Saki name


  1. Jump up^ "BAYĀT-E EṢFAHĀN"Encyclopaedia Iranica.
  2. Jump up^ A look at Iranian Music. 2011. p. 181. ISBN 9789649682600.

BAYĀT-e EṢFAHĀN, or ĀVĀZ-e EṢFAHĀN, a musical system based on a specific collection of modal pieces (gūšahā) which are performed in a particular order. According to the late 13th/19th-century author Forṣat Šīrāzī (apud Ṣafwat, p. 81), Eṣfahān was listed as one of the pieces of the modal system (dastgāh) of Homāyūn. In the twentieth century it has developed from a gūša of Homāyūn into a nearly independent dastgāh. Its smaller repertoire and cadential references to Homāyūn support the theory that it is a sub-dastgāh (āvāznaḡma) of Homāyūn. Some theorists (Farhat, p, 164; Caron and Safvate, p. 89) believe it to be an independent dastgāh; others believe it to be derived from the dastgāh Šūr (During, p. 118).
The introductory part (darāmad) is in the mode of Eṣfahān. The scale degrees are F G Ap B C D Eb. The recitation tone (šāhed) is on C, the initial pitch (āḡāz) may be on C or G, the cadential pitch (īst) may be C or Ap, and the final pitch is on G, although earlier in the century it concluded on F.
Like other dastgāhs, Eṣfahān’s scale and modal configuration have changed over time. The mood of Eṣfahān has been described as mystical and profound, expressing a mixture of happiness and melancholy. Its current similarity to the Western minor scale has made it a much-used mode in popular and semiclassical music, where Western minor tuning is used and the Ap eliminated (Zonis, p. 87).
The important gūšas of Bayāt-e Eṣfahān are the Darāmad, Jāmadarān, Bayāt-e Rājeʿ, ʿOššāq, Šāhḵatāʾī, Sūz-o-godāz, and Maṯnawī. Bayāt-e Rājeʿ is one of the most important gūšas, and has a slightly different modal character than the Darāmad. ʿOššāq, also very important, represents a distinct modulation. Šāhḵatāʾī, which is modally close to ʿOššāq, expresses the high pitch area (awj) of the dastgāh, cadencing to Eṣfahān at its conclusion. Both Sūz-o-godāz and Maṯnawī have modal configurations similar to Eṣfahān.
N. Caron and D. Safvate, Iran: Les traditions musicales, Berlin, 1966, pp. 88-91.
J. During, La musique iranienne: Tradition et évolution, Paris, 1984, pp. 118-19.
H. Farhat, The Dastgah Concept in Persian Music, Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 1965, I, pp. 164-75; II, pp. 355-58.
M. Forsat Šīrāzī, Boḥūr al-alḥān, ed. ʿA. Zarrīnqalam, Tehran, 1345 Š./1966.
M. Karīmī (coll.), Radīf-e āvāzī-e mūsīqī-e sonnatī-e Īrān, transcribed and analyzed by M.-T. Masʿūdīya (Massoudieh), Tehran, 1357 Š./1978, pp. 83-97.
R. Ḵāleqī, Naẓar-ī be-mūsīqī II, Tehran, 1352 Š./1973, pp. 207-14.
K. Khatschi, Der Dastgah: Studien zur neuen persischen Musik, Regensburg, 1962, pp. 102-03.
M. Maʿrūfī, Radīf-e haft dastgāh-e mūsīqī-e īrānī, Tehran, 1352 Š./1973 (s.v. Bayāt-e Eṣfahān).
M. Sadeghi, Improvisation in Nonrhythmic Solo Instrumental Contemporary Persian Art Music, M.A. thesis, California State University, Los Angeles, 1971, pp. 35, 60, 62-63.
D. Ṣafwat, Ostādān-e mūsīqī-e Īrān wa alḥān-e mūsīqī-e īrānī, Tehran, 1350 Š./1971, pp. 74-99.
E. Zonis, Classical Persian Music: An Introduction, Cambridge, Mass., 1973, pp. 86-88.
Search terms:
 بیات اصفهانbayat e isfahanbayat e isfahaan 
(M. Caton)
Originally Published: December 15, 1988
Last Updated: December 15, 1988
This article is available in print.
Vol. III, Fasc. 8, pp. 884-885


Dastgāh-e Māhur or Dastgaah-e Maahur (Persianدستگاه ماهور‎) is one of the seven Dastgāhs of Persian Music (Classically, Persian Music is organized into seven Dastgāhs and five Āvāzes, however from a merely technical point of view, one can consider them as an ensemble of 12 Dastgāhs).

The intervallic structure of the mode of Māhur partly parallels that of the major mode in western classic music. Yet, because of the other elements which go into the making of Persian modes, probably no melody in the major mode can be said to be in the mode of Māhur. A far closer analogue from an intervallic standpoint is the Obikhod scale (widespread in Russian medieval Znamenny chant and folk song) and the Jewish Adonai malakh mode. The modal structure of Māhur is shown below for Māhur C :
Mahur 230.png

The characteristics of this mode are:
  1. The range is unusually wide, a minor 10th.
  2. The finalis has a central position; it is the linking tone of two conjunct major tetrachords. It is also the usual Āqāz.
  3. The 7th above the finalis is a semi-tone flatter than its lower octave, the 2nd below.
  4. Leaps of thirds both ascending and descending are common.
  5. Ascending leaps of perfect fourths are occasionally used. A leap of perfect fifth from the finalis to the 5th above is rarely used. The use of such leaps makes Māhurcapable of greater excitement than most other Persian modes. But, the melodic movement is still predominantly step-wise.


In Dastgāh-e Māhur, because of its many diverse Gušes, the role of the Forud is very significant in binding the whole repertoire together. In the Forud, the 3rd and the 2nd below receive emphasis, and usually the finalis is approached from below. The following score is a typical Forud of Māhur, transcribed here in Māhur C :
Mahur 231.png (About this sound listen )
The finalis may be approached from above. This type, as shown in the next score, is less typical and gives no emphasis to the tetrachord below the finalis:
Mahur 232.png (About this sound listen )
A third type of Forud, given in the following score emphasis the four notes above and below the finalis:
Mahur 233.png (About this sound listen )


An authentic style of performance in Dastgāh-e Māhur customarily begins with an improvisation under the name of Moqaddame (meaning introduction in Persian) before the Darāmads. This Moqaddame is sometimes followed by a group of metric pieces, which are of recent origins and not of sufficient interest or authenticity to be considered here. The Moqaddame itself is nearly always included in a performance. It is a stately but unornate declamation which sets the tone for the Dastgāh, even though its characteristics are not maintained throughout. The Moqaddame places more emphasis on the tetrachord below the finalis; its basic melodic pattern is given here in Māhur C :
Mahur 234.png (About this sound listen )
After the Moqaddame, the Darāmad section begins. Here, certain modifications in the mode of Māhur are effected. These modifications are:
  1. The tetrachord above the finalis receives more emphasis than the tetrachord below it, except in the Forud.
  2. The 2nd above the finalis (d in our scale) becomes the Šāhed.
  3. The 4th above may function as the Āqāz in place of the finalis.
  4. The melodic movement is overwhelmingly diatonic. Rare leaps of thirds are used; larger leaps are avoided, unless between phrases.
The basic formula for a Darāmad in Māhur C is given in the following score:
Mahur 235.png (About this sound listen )
Dāstgah-e Māhur is rich in the number and variety of its Gušes, many of which modulate to modes very remote from the mode of Māhur itself. The major Gušes are DādXosrovāniTusiAzarbāyejāniFeyliAbolDelkašNeyrizŠekasteNahibArāqĀšurRākRāk-e Kašmir, and Rāk-e Hendi.


Dastgah : 
Āvāz :  
  • Avaz-e Dashti, 
  • Avaz-e Abu'ata, Avaz-e Bayat-e Tork
  • Avaz-e Afshari


    Dastgāh-e Šur (Persianدستگاه شور‎) is one of the seven Dastgāhs of Persian Music (Classically, Persian Music is organized into seven Dastgāhs and five Āvāzes, however from a merely technical point of view, one can consider them as an ensemble of 12 Dastgāhs).

    Šur is in some respects the most important of the Dastgāhs. It contains a large body of pieces, and in its domain belong four important Āvāzes: DaštiAbuatāBayāt-e Tork and Afšāri. A great many folk tunes, from different parts of Persia, are founded on the modal schemes of Šur or its derivative Dastgāhs and Gušes. The melodic formation in Šur is conceived within the modal structure shown below for Šur D :
    Shur 1 .png

    The characteristics of this mode are:
    1. The tetrachord above the finalis is the focal point of melodic activity.
    2. The finalis is the most emphasized tone.
    3. The 4th above is the minimal high point in the mode, and has considerable prominence.
    4. The 2nd and particularly the 3rd above the finalis are also heard frequently.
    5. The 5th above is a Moteqayyer (meaning variable in Persian). When the melodic line is descending, it is usually lowered by a micro tone from a to a KoronSymbolSup.png. This lowering is responsible for the creation of a sense of finalis for the 4th above, since by lowering the a to a KoronSymbolSup.png, the original tetrachord is recreated from g.
    6. The 6th above has no significant role except as a note of resolution for the 5th when used ascendingly (a). The 7th above can be, and frequently is, entirely omitted.
    7. The 2nd below has considerable importance both as a frequent note of Āqāz (meaning beginning in Persian) and in cadences, where one of the most common cadential patterns involves a progression from the 2nd below to the finalis.
    8. The 3rd below is also used frequently in cadences. In such situations it is used ascendingly, resolving to the 2nd below and then to the finalis. Here, the 3rd below is higher than its octave (6th above) by a micro tone, bKoronSymbolSup.png instead of b.


    In every Dastgāh the Forud assumes a very significant role as a unifying agent which binds together the various Gušes in that Dastgāh. In most Dastgāhs, more than one Forud pattern is used. In a Šur Forud, the finalis may be approached by way of a) the 2nd below, b) the 3rd and 2nd below, c) the 2nd above, or d) the 4th above. What precedes these approaches can be brief or extensive depending on the extent of Forud improvisation. The following scores, give an average length for each of these Forud types in Šur D:
    (a) Shur 2 a .png(About this sound listen )
    (b) Shur 2 b .png(About this sound listen )
    (c) Shur 2 c .png(About this sound listen )
    (d) Shur 2 d .png(About this sound listen )


    The melodic movement of Šur, as of all Dastgāhs and Gušes, is overwhelmingly diatonic. No leaps larger than a perfect 4th are made. Most leaps of 4ths actually occur between the end of one phrase and the beginning of another. In other situations, an upward leap of a 4th is relatively common, from the 2nd below to the 3rd above the finalis, at the beginning of a phrase. An upward and then downward leap of a 4th is common in the Forud d as shown above. This type of ending is also used in a number of other Dastgāhs (e.g. Homāyun and Navā). The very final portion of this Forud, which involves the leap of a 4th down, is known as Bāl-e Kabutar (meaning pigeon's wing in Persian) (see the score below).
    Shur 3.png
    Leaps of 3rds between the notes of the main tetrachord are used sparingly, generally in sequential and ornamental passages, as shown in the following score in Šur D :
    Shur 4 .png(About this sound listen )
    To illustrate the melodic character of Šur, as represented by the Darāmad, two different formulae for Darāmads of Šur are transcribed in the following scores in Šur D :
    (a) Shur 5 a .png(About this sound listen )
    (b) Shur 5 b .png(About this sound listen )
    These formulae, as the basis for improvisation, have been arrived at after analysis of numerous improvisations in Dastgāh-e Šur. After the Darāmad section, those Gušes which are part of the organisation of Dastgāh-e Šur are performed. A complete Radif, such as that of Musā Ma'rufi contains much redundancy and several short and insignificant pieces. The present study has been concerned with larger and more singular pieces, most of which would be included in a normal but extended performance of Šur.
    The main Gušes of Dastgāh-e Šur are the following: SalmakMollā NāziGolrizBozorgXārāQajarOzzālŠahnāzQaračeHoseyniBayāt-e Kord and Gereyli. They may be performed in that order, but the order is by no means fixed. In a given performance of Dastgāh-e Šur some of the Gušes may be left out altogether, and the order of those included may also vary. This observation will hold true in all of the Dastgāhs. The order in which the Gušes are listed and described represents, at best, the most common arrangement of the most noteworthy pieces in each Dastgāh.


    Gusha : 
  • Jāmadarān
  • Deylaman
  • Delkash
  • Dād
  • Bīdād
  • Darāmad-e Ḵārā
    • Darāmad-eZang-e Šotor
    • Ḥeǰāz
    • Čahār-bāḡ
    • Kerešma
    • Bozorg
    • Neydavood
    • Golriz


    Shahrzad est enchantée de votre visite et vous invite à partager votre art de sagesse,...

    Bonjour aux Artistes et Artisans de la vie!!! C'est un grand plaisir de partager avec vous ma passion de vivre l'équilibre en harmonie avec la liberté grâce à la comprehension de ma place et la place de l'autrui dans cette univers...
    Alros, je vous remercie pour être vous, pour votre générosité et l'ouverture, joignons à cette foire aux merveilles avec nos oeurves crées par la Passion et Tendresse pour la VIE...

    Manoir Ville Marie, ce Cocoon de Paix pour beaucoup de clients réguliers qui y offrent leurs présences authentiques!!! Alors, dormir au Manoir Ville Marie est une expérience à la fois paisible et intéressante.

    Participez au tirage d'un Certificat de Cadeau d'une nuit pour deux au Manoir Ville Marie':

    Tous les deux mois, il vas avoir un tirage (le premier étant le pre,mier septembre 2011) et le nom du gagnant serait annoncé. sur ce weblog

    *Racontez-moi un poème, une petite histoire de sagesse de maximum 500 mots, ou une photo, une peinture...

    Je remerci mon très cher fils, Sépandat Stéphane (qui a le regardl très profond sur l'univers et ses êtres) pour m'avoir encourager (plutôt forcé) de faire ce blog en rapport avec mes amis Manoir Ville Marie.

    Je remerci mon très cher fils, Maziar Marc (qui a le regard minutieux sur ll'univers et ses êtres) pour m'a aidé (plutôt forcer) d'avoir le courage d'apprendre comment faire ce weblog, toujours disponible pour sa mère, Maziar est un excellent guide et proffesseur.

    Enfin, je remerci mon cher mari et compagnon de vie, Bahram Bernard pour m'encourage d'essayer de faire court et simple!!!

    A cette étape de ma vie, je crois que la fiérté de l'être humain est dans sa Compréhension de l' cette Compréhension nous guide vers la Conscience qui se manifeste souvent par les Arts, La Créativiyé ou nos Actions. Où La Paix est présente, elle y est présente également.

    . Les textes et photos publiés sur ce blog sont mes propres créations et comme tous les arts peuvent être naîfs maintenant et plus mature plutard!!! Vous allez avoir une part précieux dans mon évolution artistique par vos commentaires.

    . Je jongle entre trois langues, alors, pardonnez mes erreurs et si vous souhaitez apporter des corrections, j'en serais ravie (envoyez-moi vos corrections et je les appliquerez) et je vous en serrais très reconnaissante.

    ... Au fur et à mesure que vous allez me connaitre à travers mon regard sur la VIE, l'univers et le monde..

    Je vous aime et j'ai hâte de vous décourvir par votre ART...


    About Me

    J'ai toujours été ravie de mon prénom Shahrzad شهرزاد qui avait été choisi par ma chère mére, un être exceptionnel que j'appelle madar en persan. Quand j'ai appris que Shahrzad voulait dire:'Caractère Libre', j'ai sourri...quand j'ai lu l'histoire de Shahrzad, j'ai encore, quand j'ai appris que Shahrzad était dans la Perse antique la déesse de l'apprentissage (ou quelque chose similaire,à confirmer), j'ai me suis demandée comment ma mère savait que ce prénom allait tellement bien à sa fille Shahrzad!